In the past 20 years, greenhouse technology and operation have undergone extraordinary transformation.
This is the time when photoperiodic control, mist propagation, greenhouse cooling, clean stock programmes, and CO injection, to name a few, were all introduced as common greenhouse procedures.
New markets, new production facilities, alterations in public perceptions, and the awareness that greenhouse production involves managing an organisation where people labour as well as growing crops have all contributed to making this agricultural profession a demanding and satisfying career.
For many years, the manager, student, and grower training for this profession in greenhouses lacked an up-to-date text book.
Our objective has been to combine published and unpublished work in one place in this article and provide a baseline with which we can move forward. Until the process of writing the text begins, people will not fully realize how far we have come and where we are going. Unfortunately, we realize that this article is unlikely to survive long as a modern form of expression. We don’t want it to be an easy read, because new terminology, new methods and new ways of doing things are not always easy.
Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture
Pete Smith, Daniel Martino, Zucong Cai, Daniel Gwary, Henry Janzen, Pushpam Kumar, Bruce McCarl, Stephen Ogle, Frank O’Mara, Charles Rice, Bob Scholes, Oleg Sirotenko, Mark Howden, Tim McAllister, Genxing Pan, Vladimir Romanenkov, Uwe Schneider, Sirintornthep Towprayoon, Martin Wattenbach, and Jo Smith are just a few of the individuals who have used this phrase
Biological Sciences, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 363 (1492), 789–813, 2008.
37% of the land area on the planet is used for agriculture.
52 and 84% of the world’s anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, come from agriculture.
Although the net flux is minimal, agricultural soils may potentially operate as a source or sink for CO2.
Numerous agricultural strategies have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but the most important ones are the restoration of degraded lands and the cultivation of organic soils, as well as better cropland and grazing area management.Water and rice management, set-aside, land use change and agroforestry, livestock management, and manure management all offer less effective, but still important, mitigation potential.
The estimated global technical mitigation potential from agriculture (excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass) by 2030, taking into account all gases, is estimated to be between 5500 and 6000 Mt CO2-eq. yr., with economic potentials of between 1500 and 1600, 2500, and 4000 Mt CO2-eq. yr., respectively, at carbon prices as high as 20, 50, and 100 US$ t CO2-eq.
In addition, using agricultural feedstocks instead of fossil fuels to produce electricity could minimise GHG emissions (e.g. crop residues, dung and dedicated energy crops).
According to estimates, biomass energy from agriculture has the potential to reduce costs by 640, 2240, and 16 000.